The answer will mainly depend on company preferences. Let’s say you sent your resume to a job posting online and the company uses automated tools to filter their applicants. First, you’ll need to make sure that your resume would have the right keywords that a hiring manager would use in looking for the right candidate. If you don’t, following up would be futile because the emails you’re receiving might be automated responses. If you were able to adjust your resume, you need to allow at least a week before sending a follow-up to your application. The same principle applies to offline applications; you need to be persistent but still continue to show respect for other people’s time.
The only instance when you can send a follow-up sooner is when you know someone on the inside. Employers value internal recommendations more than outside sources, so if you know someone from the company, don’t hesitate to ask for a favor. Your chances of getting an interview will definitely increase.
In any case, there are things that you should always keep in mind when following up after submitting your resume.
Keep your message positive – It’s been a while since you sent in your resume, and still no response. It’s easy to get frustrated, but don’t let this frustration show in your email.
Don’t resend the same email over and over again – If you’re going to follow up, you need to be smart about it. Change the approach you take in your emails, and highlight different key points in them.
Finally, if you do follow up, you can’t expect to get a response every time. If you don’t hear back from them, don’t take it personally. It’s probably better to move on and look for other opportunities than to obsess over one job opening.